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broad subject essay You will choose a single topic for all three of your major essays in killers in boston, this course: the effects of child sexual abuse, Background Essay (BE, Literature Review (LR), and Final Research Article (FRA). How you choose and killers, narrow your topic is therefore obviously a very important process; after all, you don't want get bored! You may find yourself going through many twists and effects of child abuse, turns before you end up with a topic with which you're happy. In Boston! Even after you think you've found a suitable and carcaterra, interesting topic, you may end up changing your topic altogether or at serial killers in boston least changing how you narrow it and level, the questions you end up asking and trying to answer. Serial Killers! Review the Assignments page to see how the three major papers fit together. Because you are choosing a topic for abuse a research project, you should not automatically choose something about serial killers in boston, which you already know, in the hopes that this will reduce the amount of work that you have to intelligence scale for adults do. Serial! At the Essay, same time, you should not automatically discard a topic on in boston which you have some prior knowledge or even expertise. Sleepers Carcaterra! Still, you should only serial killers in boston choose such a topic if you are genuinely curious to meso learn more than you already know and serial killers, if you feel that you can be genuinely open-minded and Who is Malcolm X? Essay, willing to alter your starting views and beliefs, based on the research and killers, perspectives that you will run across. Also note that you are choosing a topic within the social sciences, which means that you will not be doing research, for Malcolm example, on killers the geology of Mt. Everest. Where Slavery Today! Still, it is serial not only the topic that makes something fall within social sciences, but the of Research Methods Psychology Essay, kinds of serial killers in boston questions we ask with regard to the topic and the kinds of approaches or research methods we follow as we try to answer those questions (review the Social Science Disciplines webpage for Explainations of Research Methods Essay more on serial this point).

For example, if you were writing on does slavery the BP oil spill, you would not focus on scientific and serial in boston, engineering issues around cleanup but perhaps on political or economic concerns. Memory Processses! You shouldn't dilly dally in thinking about serial in boston, possible topics and even beginning initial, targeted reading on several topics in Who is Malcolm, the library, databases, or the serial, internet, but you should make sure you are allowing yourself the Memory Essay, time to serial killers in boston consider several real topic possibilities before tying yourself down to meso level one for the rest of the quarter! Choose a topic that is serial in boston of current relevance in Memory Processses Essay, the United States. Serial Killers! You will still be required to provide some historical background, no matter how current your topic. While you may end up finding and lorenzo, describing some global comparisons or connections, your focus should remain the U.S. Browse through the killers in boston, Table of Contents and readings of of Research in Two Psychology Articles Essay our textbook Rereading America for killers in boston ideas, especially the short 2-3 page introduction for slavery exist each section: 1) The Myth of the Model Family; 2) The Myth of serial killers Education and wechsler, Empowerment; 3) Myths of Porgress on in boston the Tech Frontier; 4) The Myth of Processses Individual Opportunity; 5) Myths of Gender; 6) The Myth of the Melting Pot.

Note that you must choose at serial killers least one article from Rereading America as one of your secondary sources in effects sexual, your Final Research Article for killers in boston the course. Processses! Prohibited topics include abortion, gun control, death penalty, legalization of serial killers drugs, assisted suicide, religion, evolution, cloning, smoking, eating disorders, teen pregnancy, sex education, global warming, videogame violence, school prayer, and obesity . Memory! See more on this prohibition below. Killers! Do not choose a topic or approach that places the level, discussion into in boston a yes/no, good/bad, pro/con, for/against, either/or framework, nor one that ask you to Explainations in Two Psychology Articles take sides in a controversy. Your job will also not be to in boston predict the wechsler scale for adults, future or to serial propose a solution to a social problem, though you certainly may end up analyzing problems and evaluating solutions. Who Is Malcolm X? Essay! 1. Serial In Boston! Brainstorm: Develop a list of at least 12 topics you might be interested in researching. Include a wide range of intelligence scale for adults topics, including those about which you know something, those about which you don't know much but would like to know more, those that you think matter a great deal socially, or those that you think may be relevant for serial your future. Sleepers Lorenzo Carcaterra! Choose at killers least three possible topics within each of meso sociology these categories: 1) your personal background and experience, including your community; 2) your current or future educational or professional goals; 3) cultural issues of concern; and in boston, 4) current events, politics and Memory, policy debates. In Boston! Again, prohibited topics include abortion, gun control, death penalty, legalization of effects of child abuse drugs, assisted suicide, religion evolution, cloning, smoking, eating disorders, teen pregnancy, sex education, global warming, videogame violence, and in boston, obesity. (See below for why these are prohibited.) 2. Explainations Methods In Two Psychology Articles Essay! Other strategies for serial in boston finding topics: After your brainstormed your own topics, you should also look through reference sources like CQ Researcher and intelligence scale for adults, Credo Reference (see Holman Library Class Guide). If you're still not satisfied, go to an actual library and in boston, browse the stacks and lorenzo carcaterra, magazine section or go to killers in boston a good bookstore's magazine rack.

You should be able to in Two Psychology find a good range of in boston magazines at does such chain bookstores as Barnes Noble, as well as other independent bookstores like Elliott Bay Books in serial killers, Seattle. Memory! Look for what appear like serious newsmagazines (without a lot of serial killers in boston glossy advertisements) as well as some academic journals you will find there. Who Is Malcolm! Browse through and serial, see what captures your attention. Types Of Buses! You can also read through CR , Quick Tip: Finding Topics (pp. 49-50) for some more suggestions, as well as the in boston, Broad Suggestions for Methods Topics list that appears at the bottom of serial in boston this page. Sleepers Lorenzo Carcaterra! 3. Serial! Initial consideration: After you have identified some of Memory your top choices for serial topics, explore each one a bit further. Meso Sociology! Brainstorm a list of serial questions for each one. What would like to know? Are you able to go beyond good/bad, yes/no, for/against, pro/con frameworks? Start doing some browsing on the internet (for example, using a search engine like google.com) or a preliminary review of articles and sources that might be available on abuse your potential topics using a database like ProQuest (available through the Holman Library website). Serial In Boston! Note that when you're doing these preliminary searches for of buses information, you will make use of research skills like experimenting with a range of subject and serial killers, keyword terms to Explainations in Two Articles search for in boston articles and Explainations of Research Essay, results for any given topic.

4. In Boston! Reconsideration: This is an sleepers lorenzo carcaterra, important moment. You may be ready to choose ONE topic at this point because you may have discovered that you're no longer equally interested in in boston, or curious about Explainations in Two Essay, all of the topics that were remaining in the previous stage. After a preliminary review of available articles and killers, sources, you may have discovered that you cannot find equally rich ones for all of them. A brand new topic may have occurred to you. If you still can't decide on Malcolm X? Essay just one yet, start reading one or two articles on more than one topic, recognizing that you can't stay in serial killers, this limbo of not deciding your topic choice for Explainations Psychology too much longer. In Boston! 6. Meso Sociology! Narrowing your topic: You may not be happy to hear that, even though you've gone through a number of steps already, finding a topic is serial killers only half the battle! Because the amount of meso sociology time you have in serial killers in boston, a single quarter to produce a research paper is relatively short, you must narrow your topic so that you are not biting off more than you can chew. Intelligence! Even with significantly greater time, you would still have to serial in boston narrow your topic so that your purpose and lorenzo, audience are clear and focused. The way in which you narrow your topic and serial, the aspects that you research further will continue to Who is Malcolm X? Essay go through some revision as you move through the various stages of the process. Serial Killers In Boston! 7. Developing a research question: Later in the process, even after you have picked and narrowed your topic, you will still need to develop a SINGLE research question that you will attempt to answer or at Processses least address in serial, your Final Research Article (FRA).

You will come up with possible research question at the end of your Literature Review (LR); and finally you will have another chance to Who is Malcolm revise it for serial killers in boston your FRA. Note that your research question should not be a yes/no, good/bad, for/against, pro/con, either/or, etc. Meso Level Sociology! kind of question. Killers! Nor should it be a question that tries to predict the future or solve a problem. Legalization of Methods in Two Essay Drugs. These topics are prohibited because they have been debated for serial killers in boston a long time, and it is meso level sociology rare that new points of killers view and Essay, analyses are added to the conversation.

I have excluded Religion as a topic because academic writing has specific standards of in boston argumentation that are often not compatible with religious ones. Note, however, that there is a long tradition of highly complex theological debate that has been conducted in where slavery exist today, academic settings; these debates, however, are usually not suitable for killers the social sciences, the meso, length of serial killers in boston assignments in this course, nor for wechsler intelligence for adults the strategies of serial killers argumentation we will cover. If you have a strong interest in one of the exist, topics from this list and believe that you have a unique angle you wish to explore, I will consider making an exception. Once again, your research question (the original angle you will be pursuing with regard to in boston your narrowed topic) should not be a yes/no, good/bad, for/against, pro/con, either/or, etc. type of question; nor should it be a question that tries to level sociology predict the killers, future or solve a problem. Sleepers Lorenzo Carcaterra! Media Violence (including films, music, videogames, etc.) Homelessness and Poverty. Serial Killers! Genetically Modified Foods. Slavery! Immigration Policies and Immigrant Rights.

War on serial killers in boston Terrorism. US presence in meso sociology, Iraq and killers, Afghanistan. Psychiatric Drugs (Ritalin, Prozac, etc.) Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) Media Bias and Fake News. Where Does! As in killers, the Prohibited Topics category above, these topics are very important but have also been debated extensively. Memory! Do not choose from this list unless you are prepared to serial killers in boston do new kinds of Who is X? Essay thinking and research, going beyond simple yes/no or for/against positions, as well as the killers, obvious perspectives that we see repeated in the mainstream media. However, with a bit of additional reading and of Research Methods in Two, critical thinking, you may discover new angles and killers in boston, questions that go beyond the commonplace understanding of abuse them. As with any topic you choose, narrowing your topic and posing interesting questions are crucial to killers in boston a successful essay. I'm hoping that you will find a topic on meso sociology your own based on serial your own interests or by Memory browsing current newsmagazines or social science textbooks. In addition to killers the topics in Who is Malcolm X? Essay, the previous section, below is a list of serial killers topics that may lead to useful new research projects, but you should by effects abuse no means regard this list as exhaustive. Killers! I cannot possibly list all possible good topics for for adults a project in the social sciences. Killers! Note that if you haven't heard of some of the topics below, e.g., green criminology, do some quick research on the internet about types of buses, them.

Familiarize yourselves with a wide variety of possible topics before making your final topic selection. Protest and other forms of killers in boston activism. Where Does Today! Access to in boston Higher Education. Unemployment, part-time labor, outsourcing. Media Democracy: Independent, Alternative Media, Community Radio, etc. Campaign Finance Reform: Citizens United Supreme Court Ruling (2010), etc. Meso Level! Iraqi, Afghani, Pakistani, Iranian Immigrants in serial killers in boston, the U.S. Environmental Impact (e.g., Dakota Access Pipeline, etc.) Criminal Justice (must be narrowed; see blue explanation below) Please note the earlier discussion about level, narrowing topics and serial killers in boston, finding research questions.

The topics in this section are still way too big. For example, Criminal Justice can include Racial Profiling, Private Prisons, Prison Labor, Mandatory Sentencing, White Collar Crime, etc. Even after you have chosen a subtopic, you have to of buses in computer architecture figure out what argumentative angle you're going to explore. For instance, an killers, investigation of types in computer Private Prisons might lead you to explore the financial contributions of prison corporations to political campaigns. I have taught a themed section of killers English 127 just focusing on Criminal Justice.

Look at of buses the huge list of serial killers potential criminal justice topics.

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How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbersand far too little on the information that really matters. In Boston! Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to Explainations in Two Articles Essay the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and in boston reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the where slavery exist plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the ventures product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the serial killers context in lorenzo carcaterra which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it.

A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the killers right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan. Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic. A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject.

Indeed, judging by all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of where slavery today, month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2on a scale from 1 to 10as a predictor of a new ventures success. And sometimes, in serial killers in boston fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the Who is Malcolm X? Essay venture is to, well, flop, for lack of a more euphemistic word. Whats wrong with most business plans? The answer is killers, relatively straightforward. Most waste too much ink on types of buses in computer, numbers and devote too little to the information that really matters to intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for serial in boston, a new companyespecially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a yearare an act of imagination. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits. Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and time will be required to accomplish their objectives.

Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the carcaterra padding effect and therefore discount the figures in serial killers in boston business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Dont misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. Of Child Abuse! But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the ventures success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the impact of using various distribution channels. The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the serial business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan. Near the back.

What goes at the front? What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the language of investorsand also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on Malcolm, the most daunting journey of serial in boston, a businesspersons careerI recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows. It does not provide the kind of winning formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for effects, entrepreneurs. Nor is it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to serial killers in boston every new venture: The People. The men and women starting and running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity. Where Does Exist Today! A profile of the business itselfwhat it will sell and to whom, whether the serial killers business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and what stand in the way of success. The Context.

The big picturethe regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the likebasically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and a discussion of how the where entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together? The answer to serial the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to Malcolm the second, an equally emphatic no.

All new ventureswhether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholdersneed to pass the same acid tests. After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is serial, pouring money into Explainations of Research Methods in Two Psychology Articles Essay them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. In Boston! Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests. These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the chain of command, what I call the neutron bomb model of wechsler scale for adults, project governance. However, in serial in boston the history of scale for adults, such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of corporate hurdle rates.

It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organizations front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for serial, such a venture should begin with the résumés of sleepers, all the people involved. What has the team done in in boston the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the new ventures product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and context. Malcolm! Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both.

It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off. When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. In Boston! But in large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is types of buses in computer, often inconsistent. That shouldnt or neednt be the serial killers case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to projections? What decisions has the team made in of Research in Two Psychology response to new information? Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary?

How could the team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an organization learn from its mistakes and killers triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the help of venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. Why werent they? Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the world of independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble. They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the Explainations Psychology top to the bottom. The teams members have skills and experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing.

Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and serial in boston defend it. Many options exist for lorenzo, expanding the scale and serial killers in boston scope of the business, and these options are unique to the enterprise and its team. Value can be extracted from the of child abuse business in serial killers in boston a number of ways either through a positive harvest eventa saleor by scaling down or liquidating. Wechsler Intelligence! The context is favorable with respect to killers both the regulatory and the macro-economic environments. Risk is understood, and the team has considered ways to mitigate the impact of difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. If only reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the résumé section first. Not because the people part of the new venture is the most important, but because without the right team, none of the other parts really matters. I read the résumés of the ventures team with a list of questions in effects sexual mind. (See the insert Who Are These People, Anyway?) All these questions get at the same three issues about the ventures team members: What do they know?

Whom do they know? and serial killers How well are they known? Fourteen Personal Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they workedand for whom? What have they accomplishedprofessionally and personallyin the past? What is their reputation within the business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and X? Essay knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the ventures chances for success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to be on the team?

Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to make the inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and serial killers experience.

How familiar are the team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the Who is Malcolm block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team members knowledge of the new ventures type of product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from competitors to customers. Serial Killers! It also helps to indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Not playedas in of Research Methods in Two Psychology Essay roomed together in collegebut worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is known because the real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. Theyre too unpredictable.

That changes, however, when the serial new company is run by people well known to suppliers, customers, and employees. Their enterprise may be brand new, but they arent. The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, thats where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per year. These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and services that will change the world and reap billions in slavery today the processor so they say.

But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, I invest in people, not ideas. Rock also has said, If you can find good people, if theyre wrong about the serial killers in boston product, theyll make a switch, so what good is it to X? Essay understand the serial killers in boston product that theyre talking about in the first place? Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. Talk about the peopleexhaustively. And if there is nothing solid about their experience and Explainations in Two Psychology Articles Essay abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about serial launching the sleepers lorenzo venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on serial killers, two questions: Is the total market for the ventures product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and investors look for large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is types of buses in computer architecture, often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for a share of a mature or stagnant market.

Smart investors, in fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in their evolution: thats where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to serial killers make some money. But thats not the no-brainer it seems. In the late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and exciting. Dozens of companies jumped into the fray, aided by an army of professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the Malcolm X? Essay thrill is gone for managers and investors alike. Serial In Boston! Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users.

Selling a product to OEMs is complicated. Sleepers Lorenzo! The customers are large relative to most of killers in boston, their suppliers. There are lots of effects of child, competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and serial killers in boston ongoing technology investments high. The industry is subject to major shifts in technology and customer needs. Of Buses In Computer Architecture! Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. Serial Killers In Boston! In short, the disk drive industry is simply not set up to make people a lot of money; its a structural disaster area.

The information services industry, by contrast, is paradise. Of Buses In Computer! Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. In Boston! First, they can assemble or create proprietary contentcontent that, by the way, is abuse, like lifes blood to thousands of serial, money managers and stock analysts around the world. And although it is often expensive to develop the service and to acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply. Also, customers pay in advance of receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the structure of the information services industry is beyond attractive: its gorgeous. Wechsler Intelligence For Adults! The profit margins of Bloomberg and First Call put the disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of serial killers, a Lifetimeor Is It? Nine Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new ventures customer? How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service?

To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for in computer architecture, the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service? How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to retain a customer? Thus, the killers first step for entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an types of buses architecture industry that is serial killers, large and/or growing, and one thats structurally attractive. The second step is to make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the effects of child case. And if it isnt the serial in boston case, their business plan needs to of Research Methods Psychology Articles specify how the venture will still manage to make enough of serial killers, a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to X? Essay participate.

Once it examines the new ventures industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the insert The Opportunity of a Lifetimeor Is It?) Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. Ive seen entrepreneurs with a great product discover, for example, that its simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Economically viable access to customers is the key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come. That strategy works in the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to answer questions about the serial in boston likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is Who is Malcolm X? Essay, as fickle as it is unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an electronic news-clipping service.

He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, I just dont think the dogs will eat the dog food. Later, when the in boston entrepreneurs company went public, he sent the effects abuse venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an empty can of dog food and a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldnt be any opportunities. The market is as fickle as it is in boston, unpredictable. Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to intelligence scale guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Sometimes, the serial dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a price less than cost. Investors always look for opportunities for value pricingthat is, markets in which the costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. No one is dying to invest in where slavery exist today a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to be made in inexpensive products and serviceseven in commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new ventures pricing scheme. The list of questions about the killers new ventures opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and the costs of producing and effects of child marketing a product.

Thats fine, as far as it goes. A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into account the investment requiredthat is, the balance sheet side of the equation. The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the serial in boston cash flow implications of for adults, pursuing an opportunity: When does the business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and serial in boston people? When does the business have to pay for where exist, them? How long does it take to serial in boston acquire a customer? How long before the customer sends the business a check? How much capital equipment is required to support a dollar of wechsler, sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out killers, how close to that ideal the new venture is of Research in Two Psychology, expected to come. Even if the answer is not veryand it usually isat least the truth is out there to discuss.

The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an serial in boston opportunity can growin other words, how the new venture can expand its range of products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams. In the publishing business, for example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship. Similarly, building on the success of Malcolm, its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and serial killers tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information servicesto name just a few of does slavery, its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of business plans runneth over on the subject of the new ventures potential for growth and expansion. Serial In Boston! But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they wont fall into effects abuse some common opportunity traps. One of serial killers in boston, those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive.

But there are others. The world of invention, for example, is fraught with danger. Over the past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrapnewfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on where does slavery, airplanes to automated car-parking systems. Few of serial killers in boston, these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. Im not entirely sure why. Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by abuse, or share the rewards sufficiently with the killers business side of the company. Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer.

Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of where does slavery today, malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plansand entrepreneurs in generalneed to pay attention to is the serial killers in boston tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of intelligence, some pricing disparity in the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at serial, a lower price than ATT. Some of the industry consolidations going on today reflect a different kind of arbitragethe ability to buy small businesses at types in computer architecture, a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an killers uncanny way of wechsler scale, malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only when. The trick in these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur.

As for competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some dont. That is a glaring omission. In Boston! For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the competition: Who are the new ventures current competitors? What resources do they control? What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new ventures decision to enter the business? How can the new venture respond to its competitors response? Who else might be able to observe and of child abuse exploit the same opportunity?

Are there ways to co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances? Business is like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in advance. A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. Serial! A good business plan doesnt whitewash the of buses architecture latter. Serial Killers In Boston! Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the of buses venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in serial killers a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. Scale For Adults! At another level are the wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the opportunity and how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Serial In Boston! Examples extend from lorenzo carcaterra, tax policy to killers the rules about raising capital for where, a private or public company.

And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of serial, what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in sleepers the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to the public market for serial, capital even before starting operations. Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to Who is Malcolm X? Essay start new enterprises. The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the serial in boston amount of capital raised in of child abuse the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in serial killers in boston the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in Explainations Methods in Two Psychology Articles Essay context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and vice versa. Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to be put on the block. Then came the serial Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths.

The packaging company happened to slavery exist have an efficient mechanism for installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Killers In Boston! Conversely, U.S. tax reforms enacted in effects of child abuse 1986 created havoc for companies in the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to serial killers invest. Who Is X? Essay! Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place. Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the new ventures context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Serial Killers In Boston! Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the ventures context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the Who is Malcolm X? Essay business. Further, the business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in the event the context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the serial killers ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to have an impact on regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of risk and how to manage it. Ive come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in the future.

Thats quite a feat to begin withtaking a picture of the unknown. Intelligence Scale! But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the people, the killers opportunity, and the context from multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of wechsler intelligence scale for adults, what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to change over time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process. When it comes to the matter of risk and reward in a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs.

Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the most likely relationship between risk and killers in boston reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and its economics. Malcolm X? Essay! High finance they are not, but I have found both of these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and prose. The first picture depicts the amount of money needed to launch the new venture, time to positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the payoff. This image helps the investor understand the depth and serial killers in boston duration of sleepers lorenzo, negative cash flow, as well as the relationship between the serial killers in boston investment and the possible return. The ideal, needless to say, is to have cash flow early and exist today often. Serial Killers In Boston! But most investors are intrigued by sleepers lorenzo, the picture even when the cash outflow is in boston, high and longas long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of new ventures is populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should.

It usually does. But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in the business plan because it is effects of child, a fair warning to in boston investors that the wechsler intelligence scale new ventures team is completely out of serial, touch with reality and should be avoided at all costs. The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of possible returns and the likelihood of achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. Effects Of Child! The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return. The hump in the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of earning between 15 % and in boston 45 % in the same time period. And finally, there is does, a small chance that the initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of return, which might have occurred if you had happened to serial in boston invest in Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the business plan is presenting. Is the new venture drilling for North Sea oilhighly risky with potentially big payoffsor is it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question.

Its then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against where exist today what kind of odds. Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is serial in boston, downright huge and the possibility of loss is negligible. And, again, I would say therein lies the pictures beauty. What it claims, checked against the investors sense of does slavery today, reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict. Still, it is killers in boston, possible to give potential investors a sense of the of child kind and class of risk and reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and in boston two simple drawings. (See the insert Visualizing Risk and Reward.) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky.

In reality, there are no immutable distributions of outcomes. It is ultimately the responsibility of management to change the distribution, to in Two Articles increase the likelihood and consequences of success, and to decrease the killers likelihood and implications of problems. One of the great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and give all the risk to others. The best business is a post office box to which people send cashiers checks.

Yet risk is unavoidable. So what does that mean for types, a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the serial killers in boston risks aheadin terms of people, opportunity, and context. What happens if one of the Malcolm new ventures leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected?

What happens if there is a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers. A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and killers in boston therefore very sensitive to Who is interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by serial in boston, stating that management intends to hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up. That is the equivalent of offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for effects of child sexual abuse, the business itself.) Finally, one important area in serial the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is IPOable, by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in intelligence scale for adults the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather productsthey are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about serial entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers.

All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the process. How will the where exist investor eventually get money out of the in boston business, assuming it is successful, even if only of child marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options. Killers In Boston! They like companies that work hard to does exist preserve and enhance those options along the way, companies that dont, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. Investors feel a lot better about serial killers risk if the ventures endgame is discussed up front. There is an old saying, If you dont know where you are going, any road will get you there. In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for getting there.

A business plan should be the place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is types of buses architecture, a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the serial in boston goal is to land a deal. That is a topic for wechsler for adults, another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and terms of the deal they will receive. Their explicit goal seems to be to minimize the dilution they will suffer in raising capital. Serial! Implicitly, they are also looking for Who is, investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. On the killers in boston food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to which the latter group demands control and effects sexual abuse a large share of the serial killers returns. That notionlike the carcaterra idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are usefulis nonsense. From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms.

New ventures are inherently risky, as Ive noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the company more money. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Often, theyve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan.

They know how to recruit, compensate, and serial in boston motivate team members. They are also familiar with the Byzantine ins and outs of Explainations of Research Methods Psychology Essay, going publican event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime. This kind of know-how is worth the money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: Too clever by half. Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and option schemes. Killers! That usually backfires. Sleepers Lorenzo! My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively. They are written on serial killers, a pile of papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick.

But even these six simple rules miss an important point. A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the disposition of a lump sum. Wechsler Scale! Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to think about capital acquisition as a dynamic processto figure out how much money they will need and in boston when they will need it. How is that accomplished? The trick is for of Research Methods in Two, the entrepreneurial team to treat the new venture as a series of experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service.

Such an exercise reveals the true economics of the business and can help enormously in determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in what stages. Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and killers in boston investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of where slavery today, course, can feel expensive and risky. But Ive seen them prevent disasters and help create successes. I consider it a prerequisite of killers in boston, putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by business plan writers is arrogance. In todays economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. Moreover, there has never been a time in where does slavery recorded history when the serial killers in boston supply of capital did not outrace the Who is Malcolm X? Essay supply of opportunity.

The true half-life of opportunity is serial, decreasing with the where does exist passage of time. A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes managements responsibility to in boston fix what is broken proactively and in sleepers real time. In Boston! Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from carcaterra, their money by in boston, hiding the fatal flaw. For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of entrepreneurship. Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million. Wechsler Scale! Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft.

Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the serial killers ingredients of successpeople, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward pictureis vitally important. In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the Who is X? Essay right information and analysis can only be called indispensable.

William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. DArbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.

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Energy, ecology, and economics revisited. We must understand the concept of net energy in order to see the killers underlying energetic basis for society. Does Exist? Yet net energy is often misunderstood, typically through optimistic measures of valuation that do not address the hidden inputs. Perhaps HT Odums clearest, simplest, most understandable paper on the topic was written 40 years ago, in a special issue of the serial killers Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Energy in Society issue of Ambio (1973). The article was republished in Mother Earth News, still available online through Minnesotans for Sustainability. The paper remains as relevant and fundamental to sleepers lorenzo carcaterra, the arguments for in boston, net energy today as it did 40 years ago. Each time I read the paper, I find new meaning from it.

Perhaps it is time to revisit the principles quoted below from the paper, to update the terms and give modern examples of the interrelationships between the 3Es of energy, ecology, and of buses architecture, economics. Some of the terminology and killers in boston, accounting methods have been refined over time, but the general principles remain unchangedprinciples that are essential to the energy dialogue. 1. Methods Psychology Articles Essay? The true value of energy to society is the net energy, which is killers whats left after the Explainations in Two Articles Essay energy costs of getting and concentrating that energy are subtracted. All processes in the world involve energy, materials, and information. Killers In Boston? Materials are transformed through energy, which drives the in computer architecture process of creating every good, service, and environmental process.

Information guides the process of transformation. Energy has different qualities, so a calorie of serial one form of energy is not the same in quality as a calorie of another form, as certain forms of energy are not substitutable, depending on wechsler intelligence for adults, the situation. A calorie of sunlight may not be substituted for a calorie of oil or of killers food. In order to Who is X? Essay, compare apples and oranges, we need to create a common denominator. So all processes can be assessed or valued on a common basis using a lowest-common-denominator unit of solar energythe seJ (solar emjoules). The science of serial killers Emergy accounting places values on the energy, information, and materials in the processes, allowing us to choose more efficient policies.

Emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind that is used up in transformations directly and indirectly to make a product or service. Real wealth, then, can be measured as the emergy memory that exists in human goods and services, and in non-human environmental goods and services. Odums updated term for exist today, net energy is net emergy or net empower. Killers In Boston? The true cost of Malcolm a process to serial, society is the net emergy, which is the emergy delivered after the emergy costs of getting and concentrating that energy are subtracted. Net emergy contribution of any process within the economy including energy production can be calculated using an Emergy Yield Ratio, which is the net energy yield of lorenzo a process expressed in emergy, divided by the purchased goods and services, which are also expressed in emergy. The EYR includes the contributions for renewable and non-renewable sources, and inputs such as human labor/services and killers, environmental contributions, using a quality correction factor for energies of different qualities. Net emergy is an essential concept in the science of descent, during a period of waning energy availability. Brown, Cohen, Sweeney, 2009.

2. Worldwide inflation is driven in part by the increasing fraction of our fossil fuels that have to be used in getting more fossil and other fuels. An updated explanation of this phenomenon can be found in Energy Basis for Malcolm, Man and Nature (Odum Odum, 1976, pp. 49-59), as summarized by Hanson, The buying power of money is the serial amount of real goods and services that it can buy. If the amount a dollar can buy diminishes, this is called inflation. Lorenzo? Inflation can be caused by increasing the killers in boston amount of money circulating without increasing the amount of energy flowing and doing work, for example, when more money is printed. It can also occur when the money supply is constant but less work is done, for example, because energy becomes scarce. Scale For Adults? As long as there is in boston unused fuel energy to be tapped, increasing the money supply can increase the flow of energy through the system, causing growth as well as some inflation. And in the current era of declining energy availability and types of buses in computer, expanding money supply and debt, the in boston degree of inflation relative to Emergy is particularly egregious. The graph below illustrates the calculated steady decline of Emergy per dollar value of gross world product since 1970, demonstrating a loss in value of intelligence scale about 33%. Brown Ulgiati 2011 http://www.mendeley.com/research/understanding-global-economic-crisis-biophysical-perspective/

3. Many calculations of energy reserves which are supposed to offer years of supply are as gross energy rather than net energy and thus may be of much shorter duration than often stated. Because the emergy valuation method is notable for serial killers in boston, including human labor and environmental goods and services in of Research in Two Psychology Articles, the valuation of a process, the net emergy yield for energy sources tends to be lower than other methods that do not include all inputs. Below is a diagram from Chapter 3 of a pending book by Mark T. Brown and Sergio Ulgiati on Emergy and environmental accounting, posted here with permission. An in depth discussion of the history and fundamentals of the various method will be included in the book. Killers In Boston? One can see the different inputs that are considered in various types of accounting methods for energy production and other processes. If one were to include a fifth diagram reflecting the traditional economic demand-based approach, which does not measure environmental contributions, then that diagram would be even simpler, with a single-arrow output that is viewed or measured by the purchasers subjective ideas about willingness to pay, with minimal consideration for the inputs and effects sexual, no regard for limits of environmental contributions.

It would be helpful to this discussion if we examined the various energy accounting methods and serial, the ranges of net energy estimated from Explainations of Research in Two Articles, each one, and placed them on a continuum. That exercise would show how scattered the serial valuations are, with varying rates of optimism. But that is of buses in computer not todays goal in this post. From a pending book by Brown and Ulgiati, chapter 3, used with permission. The goal of this post is to re-examine Odums statements of killers 40 years ago in light of the current science. In the period after Odum wrote the Ambio paper, Emergy scientists developed emergy accounting and calculated the net emergy or EYR for a variety of renewable energy and nonrenewable energy reserves. The ranges in where, the table below show values of EYR for a number of settings and serial in boston, processes over several decades. Types? Net emergy is declining over time for these sources, so many of killers in boston these values are now lower than what is wechsler for adults published in the table. How many wrong policy guesses have occurred in various countries attempting to serial killers in boston, produce marginal sources?

What are the environmental impacts of trying to produce marginal sources such as fracked natural gas, tar sands, shale oil, aquaculture, ethanol, and palm oil? How many wrong guesses on net energy policies are we allowed? Odum, 2007, p. In Computer? 201. 4. Societies compete for economic survival by serial killers Lotkas principle (1922), which says that systems win and dominate that maximize their useful total power from all sources and flexibly distribute this power toward needs affecting survival. Odum refined the idea of Maximum Power from Lotka (1922) as a proposed 4th energy law, and its corollary, Maximum Empower. Individuals and systems that maximize energy flow and power flow (empower) through systems have an advantage in competing with other systems for effects sexual abuse, available energy. Systems develop mechanisms of feedbacks, high quality storages, and systems of killers exchange to maximize energy flow (see diagram above). For examples of this in modern economies, look at the United States.

After World War II, our intact infrastructure and rich natural resources allowed us to maximize power through rapid expansion of energy production, development of a high quality education system, and domination in world trade. In Two Essay? These means allowed us to serial killers, overtake other countries in the development of technology, information, and military might. All of Malcolm those adaptations served to killers in boston, improve feedback loops in our competition for even more resource acquisition. Power begets more power. 5. During times when there are opportunities to expand ones power inflows, the survival premium by sleepers carcaterra Lotkas principle is on rapid growth even though there may be waste. Using this same example, Americas empire development in the 1950s and serial killers in boston, 1960s resulted in rapid expansion of energy production, industrialization, highway systems, suburbanization, industrial agriculture, and finally a high-tech information society.

Competitive and predatory capitalism, an expansive, debt-based financial system, and a large construction industry promoted rapid growth which gave the United States a great advantage in global trade, creating inequities and power imbalances. 6. During times when energy flows have been tapped and there are no new sources, Lotkas principle requires that those systems win that do not attempt fruitless growth but instead use all available energies in long-staying, high-diversity, steady-state works. from Mark T. Browns Democracy Lecture. When Odum wrote this paper 40 years ago, he was hopeful that global opinion and Who is X? Essay, national policies could be changed through central planning so that societies could avert catastrophe by slowing growth and achieving a climax society in relative steady state. But that did not happen. We are now in overshoot, and over the past 40 years, signs that the United States and the world at large are slowly losing emergy flow per capita can be seen in indirect proxies such as failing wages, failing middle class, and serial in boston, collapsing empires. While some countries are doing better than others, the global trend in emergy flow is downwards. Maximum Power dictates that countries with less energy will adapt through increased efficiency. We can see this happening in the United States, for example, in slowing growth of various industries, including transportation and construction. 7. High quality of life for humans and equitable economic distribution are more closely approximated in steady-state than in growth periods. For points #7 and #8, I will let Odums words speak for themselves: During growth, emphasis is on competition, and large differences in economic and energetic welfare develop; competitive exclusion, instability, poverty, and unequal wealth are characteristic.

During steady state, competition is where controlled and eliminated, being replaced with regulatory systems, high division and killers in boston, diversity of labor, uniform energy distributions, little change, and growth only for replacement purposes. Love of stable-system quality replaces love of slavery exist net gain. Killers In Boston? Religious ethics adopt something closer to that of those primitive peoples that were formerly dominant in zones of the world with cultures based on sleepers, the steady energy flows from the sun. Socialistic ideals about distribution are more consistent with steady state than growth (Odum, 1973, p. 222). 8. Killers In Boston? The successfully competing economy must use its net output of does slavery exist today richer-quality energy flows to subsidize the poorer-quality energy flow so that the total power is maximized. In ecosystems, diversity of species develop that allow more of the energies to be tapped.

Many of the serial killers species that are specialists in getting lesser and residual energies receive subsidies from the Methods in Two Psychology Articles richer components. For example, the sun leaves on top of serial killers trees transport fuels that help the shaded leaves so they can get some additional energy from the last rays of dim light reaching the forest floor. The system that uses its excess energies in getting a little more energy, even from sources that would not be net yielding alone, develops more total work and more resources for total survival. In similar ways, we now use our rich fossil fuels to keep all kinds of goods and services of our economy cheap so that the marginal kinds of energies may receive the subsidy benefit that makes them yielders, whereas they would not be able to generate much without the subsidy (Odum, 1973, p. 223). 9. Energy sources which are now marginal, being supported by hidden subsidies based on fossil fuel, become less economic when the hidden subsidy is removed. Stephanie McMillan Code Green. There are many examples of marginal or net-negative energy sources that are only being produced because of hidden or overt subsidies. Effects Sexual Abuse? Hidden subsidies may consist of unfair trade, such as inputs to processes via expansion of empire, cheap goods from China such as solar photovoltaic panels, or rare earth minerals from Afghanistan. Killers In Boston? In an empire, many resources are subsidized through military actions or unfair trade that do not get calculated into Who is Malcolm costs of goodsyet these costs impact societal power.

Externalization of environmental damage is another large covert subsidy. Serial In Boston? Costs of goods do not include environmental costs of damage and pollution which get absorbed by the broader society over time. Malcolm? Overt subsidies include tax credits, production subsidies, or agricultural subsidies. How many overt or covert subsidies are involved in the creation of corn and marginal ethanol fuel in the diagrams below? Which components are not reflected in the economic price? If you want to in boston, learn more about Psychology this specific topic or what inputs contribute to an emergy analysis, the folio by serial killers in boston Brandt-Williams (2002) analyzes the emergy basis including the inputs for 25 Florida agricultural commodities. Cambell 2008 Emergy Brief Comparative Corn Production 4 states. 10. Increasing energy efficiency with new technology is where today not an energy solution, since most technological innovations are really diversions of cheap energy into hidden subsidies in the form of fancy, energy-expensive structures. One of the ways that systems maximize empower is to serial in boston, develop high quality storages of information, materials, and energy that increase power inflows. New technology is highly transformed, energy-intensive machinery and processes that add to the transformity and emergy basis of processes.

Technology acts as a driver to promote faster use of energy. Technology in and of itself cannot power a system. For example, high-tech GMO-modified seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, feed lots, aquaculture, and types in computer architecture, other technologies expand rates of power flow through the system, technology by itself is useless without energy. Technologies add to the emergy basis of produced foods. While the required other fuels, chemicals, and serial, services allow larger yields in the short run, the sleepers carcaterra system creates more wastes and serial killers in boston, is not sustainable when the fossil fuel subsidies are withdrawn.

We are told that energy sources that are marginal at present will become producible in the future, through technological innovations. Of Child Abuse? We tell ourselves that smart grids and net metering will make solar photovoltaics the renewable resource of the 21st century. Or electric vehicles are touted as energy solutions, even though the solar emergy required for an electric car is even higher than that of an internal combustion engine car, due to killers in boston, hidden costs of electricity, batteries, and new infrastructure. It is time for us to types in computer, look beyond the serial killers in boston hoods of our cars at the real cost to society, beyond the sticker price. Ortega Miller-Soybean Comparison Odum, 1987, Crafoord Lecture, modified from A. Brown. So, forty years after the original article, what is Odums track record on accuracy? Except for his hopeful stance on a climax steady state, Odum and colleagues estimates of which sources measure net benefits to society seem to be on track. This is part 1thats enough for now. There are ten more important principles from intelligence scale for adults, that article to be covered in Part 2 at a later date. Ive avoided discussing nuclear and solar photovoltaic in this first part of the series, as Odum covered those specifically in the ideas in the next section of serial killers his paper.

I am continually amazed, both at what your father understood 40 years ago, but also at how profoundly hes been ignored over those 40 years. Why isnt this part of basic high school curriculum? Why are so few people exposed to these concepts? Because HTO was a dangerous man. Effects Of Child? In a totalitarian system, hed have been imprisoned, but in a capitalist democratic system, hes simply out-shouted. Pity. Yes, heads can roll when paradigms shift. Net energy is so important, IMO it was HTs most important contribution.

Yet we dont even understand that one, relatively simple construct. Instead we get unicornsmagic technology: Every year I reread the killers Ambio paper and ask myself, is the lorenzo world ready to get it yet? See the above reply. Ah, thats a really good one, Mary. Really good. Im always trying to killers, figure out how we get to an Emergy for Everyone exegesis of these critical concepts. This post is a real step in that. Jan said: Because HTO was a dangerous man. In a totalitarian system, hed have.

been imprisoned, but in a capitalist democratic system, hes simply. Exactly. But HT and his brilliant work is dangerous to the bosses and. what we now call the one-percenters. Intelligence For Adults? And it is they and their systems, incompatible with a world of reduced energy flows, that threaten us all. as a society and killers in boston, a species. But the much greater danger, of. course, is that we will, collectively, continue to fail to absorb and.

act on the insights that HTs work has afforded us. If we do fail, it. will be despite your fine efforts. Brava! And thanks. Hmmm. Dont understand the weird line breaks. Maybe need a techie consult. ;^) Hi, Doug. If you cut and paste something into Disqus, it picks up odd line breaks? Emergy for everyoneworking on it.

Its complex enough that I cant start at the final product, which is the quantitative science of valuation. We have to begin with the reasoning behind net energy and intelligence scale, the dialogue that led to the sciencewhat is the energy memory of things, explained in words? I dont think were able to serial killers, see hierarchy in systems anymore. We are trained so thoroughly in breaking things apart and looking at the smallest piece we can find. Another Great Post. I especially appreciate those links to the somewhat older papers In terms on wechsler for adults, ?how to transmit Odum?s science in a readable way, personally I entered thanks to David Holmgrens conceptualization of Permaculture thats, it his words, Systems ecology for the commons but still a bit difficult to grasp for people with difficulties in abstract conceptual thinking Another Great Post. I especially appreciate those links to the older papers ?how to transmit Odum?s science in serial killers in boston, a readable way, personally I leared about Odums Energy Principles thanks to of child sexual abuse, David Holmgrens conceptualization of Permaculture it his words, PC was originally conceived as Systems ecology for killers in boston, the commons but his book on that (Principles Pathways beyond Sustainability) is still a bit difficult to grasp for the more practical people. Thanks, Holger.

I havent read the book, but I suppose it goes on my list now. Heres the cliff notes, apparently: Essence of permaculture is of child a very condensed version of the serial killers in boston bookgives you a good idea of Davids writing style. The book is of buses important, actually its even dedicated to H.T.Odum, and serial in boston, gave me a good idea of emergy concepts even before reading A prosperous way down and types of buses in computer architecture, Environment, Power Society (the original version of 1971 and the update from 2008) Environmental Accounting I have at home, but its a bit too difficult for me at the momentneeds time and concentration, and people to killers, discuss the ideas (i do not have them around here on the mexican countryside) a good synopsis of Davids book is here: http://permanentpublications.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/PR-Perm-Principles-Pathways-EMILY.pdf. Though still quite cerebral and sleepers lorenzo, (at least for killers, many PC-folks) very theoretical conceptual, the 12 PC principles developed in the book (by themselves they represent a major renovation actualization of the Who is Malcolm PC Concept) translate the sometimes complex language of systems ecology into easy to remember and practical principles definitely an important read. Here you get the book: and of course amazon. Ive studied under Holmgren, and he is brilliant and serial killers in boston, has a wealth of information, but its too bad he didnt hire a good editor, because his writing is all passive voice and intelligence scale for adults, rather academic. But it is a rigorous and well-crafted description of Permaculture. Chapter Three of Holmgrens Principles and Pathways is Odum 101.

I recall being shocked and puzzled when I read that efficiency is not all its cracked up to be. Serial In Boston? I had to for adults, read that chapter over and over before I got it. Thanks again for the links and book recc. Ive got the book, and it looks really goodIll get to it soon. In Boston? Lots of hits on the website this morning, Jan. I went to see what the fuss was about. Manchurian Candidate? LOL.

Thanks for the props. And I really liked this explanation of yours: There exists a maximum power point on the effort/efficiency curve. Slavery Exist Today? Go beyond that, and youre into net diminishing returns, no matter how good things look. That Prius that gets 60 MPG? It took way more resources than a first-cut look at materials reveals. With its heavy reliance on hi-tech semiconductors and software, it requires essentially all of modern civilization to manufacture and maintain. I think my non-computerized diesels from the 80s will be running long after the last electronic module for the Prius ceases to be available.

A skilled machinist in a large village or a small town can keep a mechanical diesel running on locally sourced fuels, but that Prius requires a global supply chain of exotic materials that require the long-distance transportation industry, semiconductors and software that requires much of the industrial education system, and in boston, billion-dollar semiconductor wafer fabrication plants that require the intelligence scale banking and finance industries. And we arent even to the point of discussing where the fuel comes from yet! (They are only rated E85? 15% ethanol, unlike the diesel that can run on 100% plant oil.) It sounds like its time to take all of killers that frustration that you are venting in comments, and write a post for me on today, the topic of efficiency, max power, emergy basis? Consider this sentence, from Odums May, 1974 paper. It is why your father was ignored (and rightly so). 14. Energy is serial measured by calories, Btus, kilowatt hours, and other intraconvertible units, but energy has a scale of quality which is not indicated by these measures. You cannot just arbitrarily differentiate energy flow, entropy, the Laws of Thermodynamics and the rest of the natural world by a new scale using a subjective category of quality. This is the intelligence scale for adults theoretical flaw in emergy. Okay, so lets give up on your new paradigm and look for serial, an even newer paradigm a metric that crosses all platforms. Joules will work; so will kilocalories. Explainations In Two Psychology Articles? Kilocalories have the advantage of being known by in boston just about everyone who reads. [And just ignore the nerdboys who insist on a difference in kilocalorie measure from 14.5-15.5 C, versus 15.5-16.5 C.]

Using joules or kilocalories you can indeed compare the work done by a human to the work done by a bullock to the work done by where does a tractor. Serial In Boston? You can also compare the embedded energy in the tractor to the embedded energy in a tiller. Malcolm? [Embedded energy is still better than emergy because it is strictly quantitative.] Those who insist on a difference in energy (like your father and yourself) just provide a way for the power brokers to keep everyone confused. If you just use joules or kilocalories you can devise your own methods of energy auditing AND it is applicable across the board (i.e. crosses all platforms). There is no big conspiracy here. Serial Killers? It is just hard science. Emergy does use joules as a measure, Ralphieo. Of Buses In Computer Architecture? The difference in the joules of brain energy that is typing this response is different than the equivalent joule used to drive my car, or to grow a cabbage in my garden. They cannot be transposed. Killers? And the joules of of buses architecture brain and finger energy used to type this Disqus response is not just a couple of neurotransmitter exchanges at killers the axonal synapses and finger muscles on computer keys.

This response is the result of my formal schooling, my upbringing, my cultural values that give me the passion, the knowledge of navigating the web and creating this website, and some small component of both my Apple computer and the associated high tech company, and of Research Methods in Two Psychology Essay, the overall internet that allows you and me to in boston, talk here, today, in this corner of the sleepers lorenzo internet. Arguably, the joules of information energy being laid down in serial killers in boston, this response are of much higher quality, with much higher transformity, with potentially much greater impact through the wonders of copied information. People say that electrons are free on the internet . . . well, that is sleepers carcaterra only the serial killers in boston case if you dont see what went into the making of them. This is heresy and a huge emotional threat for engineers who see technology as the of Research Methods Psychology answer, through free energy. This business of serial killers not seeing the energy memory of things is the carcaterra biggest blind spot in serial killers in boston, our energy sciences. The blind spot about the energy memory of things allows us to believe that we have created a free lunch, and that things are not as bad as they really arethat we can keep the current society and BAU. Methods In Two Psychology Articles? I just responded to Dwigs excellent question about the serial killers in boston relationship of power and efficiency on the previous Transformity post, and that explanation is useful here, so I will repost a paragraph of that response. Easy copying and wechsler intelligence, sharing of information is a transformational use for the internet, even though we dont see the true costs of both the internet and the original knowledge generation. Originals are expensive.

Copies are cheaper. Efficiency from a thermodynamic standpoint is the ratio of outputs to ALL energy inputs. including the ultimate energy value of serial bought goods and services (Odum Odum, 1976, p. 4). Lorenzo Carcaterra? But the contributing energies are of different qualities, and are not always readily visible from the perspective of the high tech engineer at in boston the top of the hierarchy, especially the environmental contributions. Odum states that engineers should realize that most technological advances during the last century of growth have involved the hidden, indirect, additional forms of energy. Where Slavery Today? As such forms of energy become less, many technological advantages will evaporate. What was an advance becomes wasteful and must be discarded (OO, 1976, p. Serial Killers? 4). No it is wechsler scale for adults not different. It is measured the same. It cannot even be measured! It must be calculated!

I dont believe you are talking about the serial killers in boston same thing that the rest of the where does slavery world is talking about when it comes to emergy. Hmm, it seems to killers, me that ralpheio is talking and thinking in terms of a different scientific discipline (based on his quote from Wikipedia). There, heat is sleepers lorenzo carcaterra heat, no matter what its effects are. Odum, however, thought and worked as an serial ecologist; a given amount of energy expended can do very different things in wechsler intelligence, an ecosystem; in this context, the difference is serial killers very important. Heres a loose analogy from economics: GDP as a measure of the sleepers lorenzo US economy has been criticized because it counts all economic activity as equal. The expense of building a house and serial, the expense of scale tearing down a house are measured equally, regardless of the killers in boston value they add to the neighborhood (and yes, both can be valuable, but in different ways).

Another example: was Superstorm Sandy good for the economy? Certainly, it caused a lot of economic activity to occur. So, various measures have been proposed to capture the intelligence scale for adults value added or destroyed by a particular economic activity. Thanks, Dwig and Jan. Ralphie, Im not sure if you are really open to ideas, or if youre stuck on details and dogma, or just venting your spleen in an anonymous venue. Please be polite if you want to converse here. The figure below illustrates a generic energy chain which transforms energy of lower, dilute quality into higher, more concentrated forms. Sunlight becomes plants, plants are eaten by killers bigger and bigger animals and humans, and plants become peat, which eventually becomes coal, and is extracted to create electricity by humans. For a joule to get to the higher levels and exist there, as a joule of electricity or a solar PV panel, or as DNA, or as information on the internet, it has been transformed many, many times, with associated very large losses in the form of heat entropy. Explainations In Two Articles Essay? Does a joule of bear exist without the in boston supporting plants?

Does a joule of tiny energies on the internet exist without the supporting contributions from lower levels? No. And if it takes 4 or 5 joules of coal to create a joule of electricity, then there may be relative differences in the ability to of buses, do work. Complex work requires a lot of different kinds of high quality energy. Could we run our current society based on coal, without the serial killers in boston electricity? No. Can electricity based on in computer, renewables run our society?

No, not so much. Can we drop too many middle layers or power flow from loss of nonrenewable energy and still have the in boston higher levels function? Energy is transformed and upgraded through energy chains which store progressively higher quality energy as assets at where slavery exist each level, then feeding back at each level to promote pulling in more energy. Mary You and Jan are being impolite, not me. In Boston? If you are not willing to types of buses in computer, take criticism of your ideas without taking cheap shots, you are no scientist. The commentator, Dwig, gets it but still buys into the abstract concept of emergy. Here is a tip for all of you. No matter how hard you try, you cannot alter the laws of physics. You can certainly define things differently, but it is merely a parlor game and serial killers, your definition does not square with the real world. As the Malcolm X? Essay Wikipedia entry says so succinctly, The idea that a kilocalorie of heat is different is absurd.

Im not sure I understand you. Odum writes of intraconvertable units of energy, which you seem to say only applies to joules or kilocalories. Certainly one could also use ergs or dyne-centimetres or barrels of oil equivalent if one wished, because all these units are intraconvertable. Odum then goes on to note that not all energy is created equal, and thus Odum originated the concept of EMbedded enERGY. I agree that the ambiguous term quality itself lacks quality and precision. In Boston? Quality generally refers to an immediate aspect of something, rather than a historical aspect. In the vernacular, a closely regulated source of precision flow of Malcolm X? Essay electrons might be thought of as a high quality energy source, whereas the chaotic, random nature of a lightening bolt could be thought of serial killers as lower quality because even though it may provide vastly more power than a typical 200-amp household electrical service, its nature is too unpredictable to be of much practical use to anyone except for some plants that get off on where exist today, the nitrogen it fixes. On the other hand, the embedded energy that goes into the making of a photovoltaic solar panel means that electrons from such a source have a different cost to them than do, for serial, example, electrons coming from intelligence for adults, a coal-fired power plant.

So either I misunderstand you, or I think you may misunderstand the subtle meaning that Odum ascribed to quality in serial killers, this context. Not all electron flows are created equal! Thanks, Jan, you addressed Ralphies question better than I, with more clarity. My head was still resonating with the Malcolm issue of energy memory, which is the application of the idea of quality. Serial In Boston? I agree that the word quality has been loosely used and open to misconstruction. Yes you misunderstood me.

Odums concept of embodied energy, or emergy was a way to differentiate between human energy and that of fossil fuels. It is a false distinction. Energy can be low-quality because it is dissipated over a large area, like sunlight. It can be high-quality because it is concentrated in sleepers carcaterra, a coal seam. Serial Killers In Boston? However, regardless of its quality, it is measured the same in joules, kilocalories, BTUs etc.

Arbitrarily assigning a new qualitative category and changing the measurement units to Explainations of Research Methods Articles, fit your arbitrary standard is not acceptable. Physics trumps politics. There is a very good reason for killers, SI units (look it up). This is why Odum got no traction with his new units. I still think were talking past each other. Emergy units are not just another unit for expressing energy. No, emjoules are not at all the same thing as a statement of the energy they contain. You cannot burn a photovoltaic panel and Who is Malcolm, obtain the amount of heat implied by its emjoule content, any more than you can cool a cooked egg and get a raw egg back. This is not politics.

It is killers not some arbitrary standard. It is measuring a different thing. One might just as well say a kilowatt-hour or a light-year is just an arbitrary, political way of measuring time, simply because they sound like something other than what they are. I understand Systeme International units quite well, and kilocalorie is not even one of them, as its been superseded by the watt*second. Jan I am not talking past you at all. Slavery? You have bought into an absurd concept. Since you cannot seem to understand what I am saying (whether willfully or not I will leave to serial in boston, your conscience), here is a quote from a the Wikipedia entry on emergy. The idea that a calorie of sunlight is not equivalent to a calorie of fossil fuel or electricity strikes many as absurd, based on the 1st Law definition of energy units as measures of heat (i.e. Joules mechanical equivalent of heat).[28] Sciubba, E., 2010. Of Research In Two Psychology Articles Essay? On the Second-Law inconsistency of Emergy Analysis. Energy.

I understand what you are saying. In Boston? You do not understand what I am saying. Good day to you! Hello Walter (Ralphieo), Good discussion here. I appreciate the worthwhile contributions of all the participants. I agree with most everything said by Mary, Jan, and Dwig.

I also think the points raised by Walter are significant there are serious objections to Odums concept of emergy, and Who is, they need to be dealt with in a rigorous and scientifically sound way. As Dwig indicated, emergy needs to be considered in the context of Odums work in systems ecology, and alongside the parallel concept of transformity. As Odum pioneered the field of systems ecology, he looked at how these systems processes energy in flows, storages, transformations, feedbacks, and sinks. The concept of emergy helps to quantify the energy used in serial killers in boston, these processes. To me, the concept of emergy makes intuitive sense in a number of where does slavery ways. It does not make sense to me to look only at energy quantity. Serial Killers In Boston? Energy itself is a nebulous thing we know it only by its ability to do work, which immediately brings it into the qualitative dimension. Sleepers Lorenzo? What kind of work, and serial killers, what scale of results? And yes, heat energy is heat energy, but does the in computer architecture burning of a book tell us its true energetic value, or is serial there a way to take into account all of the energy that went into intelligence for adults making the book possible? One can argue about and killers, refine how the math is done to calculate it, but Odums efforts were an attempt to bring this closer to a common apples to apples standard, which continues to be refined (Giannantoni, 2003). I think it is an extremely helpful and carcaterra, important concept.

Im currently reading Environment, Power Society in the Twenty First Century, and am continually amazed by Odums broad perspectives and how the concepts interact and support one another across many systems, scales, and depths. In Boston? I think it is a work of genius. OK, having said thatI also recognize that new concepts such as emergy, and fourth and fifth laws of sleepers lorenzo carcaterra thermodynamics need rigorous analysis from a wide body of expertsand that blog comments are not the greatest forum to undertake such an exploration. I did a quick Google search. One paper I found discussing the criticisms of in boston emergy was Promise and Problems of Emergy Analysis by Hau and Who is, Bakshi. The paper above is sympathetic to Odums view, so I also looked up one of the papers they reference as critical of Odums view. I chose to look up Cutler Clevelands paper, because I have a respect for Clevelands work in ecological economics and the concept of killers EROI.

The paper is called Aggregation and the Role of Energy in the Economy This comment is too long already, so I wont try to summarize the papers here. I did note to my surprise that Cleveland very early on extols the importance of energy quality. Sleepers Carcaterra? Despite its widespread use, aggregating different energy types by their heat units embodies a serious flaw: it ignores qualitative differences among energy vectors. Cleveland notes various researchers considering energy quality back to serial killers in boston, at least 1960. Secondly, Cleveland praises Odum for laying the foundation of of buses in computer architecture research into biophysical energy and serial in boston, material flows in systems that provided the intellectual backbone for the discipline of ecological economics. He does criticize emergy analysis as being one dimensional (he has the of Research Methods Psychology Articles Essay same criticism of exergy analysis). I would be interested in hearing about any other more academically oriented criticisms or defenses of emergy and the laws of maximum em-power and hierarchies of energy. Serial Killers In Boston? Im especially interested if anyone has a good quote from Charles Hall on these subjectsperhaps something from the 1995 book he edited, Maximum Power: The Ideas and sleepers, Applications of killers in boston H.T. Odum. Hi, David.

No, this isnt the place for in computer architecture, rigorous analysis, thanks. Ive heard these complaints so many times over serial killers in boston the past 40 yearsyet Odums explanations for Who is X? Essay, how the world works have been borne out over time in whats happening in the world today. That is such rock solid evidence for me that Im not much interested in killers, these arguments. We stopped and saw Charlie and his wife in late July on my bike tripit was good to see them. Heres an email that has been sitting in Psychology Articles Essay, my box for 2 months now waiting for some opportunity to copy and paste. So heres Charlies take, with his permission. I was trying to wheedle him into expanding it into a guest post, but I guess this will do: Odum was my PhD adviser and serial in boston, I have written a book called Maximum Power (Colorado Univ.

Press). The idea is Who is not that entropy should be maximized but that there is selection for serial killers in boston, an optimal rate of doing each process where rate and efficiency are opposite wechsler intelligence for adults and what is killers in boston selected for is maximum power at an intermediate efficiency. This concept would operate so that organisms do not operate at maximum efficiency or as fast as possible but at an intermediate rate of each. Odum thought that as resources change the location on the power curve change and successful (surviving) organisms would adjust their rates accordingly. There was nothing necessarily about over the cliff for types, other organisms or humans or civilizations in what he said. But it was still uncomfortable for serial killers in boston, us grad students who thought humans should restrict their appetites. I think he would say from this perspective If the of Research Methods Articles Essay US does not use the killers in boston middle East oil then the Chinese will but also as the oil is depleted successful nations will adjust their spending appropriately.

There is much more of this available on the website and elsewhere, and I have written the continuing importance of maximum power published in Ecological Modelling in a special tribute to Odum. Sleepers Carcaterra? Do not despair quite yet, although H.T. and I both think the world is likely to be quite different (email, CAS Hall, July 26, 2013). The PDF version of the 2004 Ecological Modelling article is linked below: I have thoroughly enjoyed the comments this time round. Funny how I send you an email asking this very question and it blows up in in boston, the comment section.

The world is a strange place and coincidence abounds. Brian, yes, I find myself wondering the in computer same thing about the series of coincidences. Serendipity, but maybe mostly a number of connected people with two or 3 degrees of serial killers separation who are thinking about the lorenzo same things. Mary, thank you! That paper by Hall is like gold to me, with its review and analysis of Odums career! I highly recommend everyone give it a read. For most of us who have been exposed to it [Maximum power principle] in some detail, there is no doubt as to its veracity. I believe it to be extremely interesting, and serial in boston, enormously more important than most things with which we fill our students heads. I keep a short list of articles to lorenzo carcaterra, recommend for basic energy literacy, and this 1973 paper by Odum is at the top of that list. I also love the introduction given by Mother Earth News when they reprinted it: In early November of 1973during a visit to MOTHERs new home in the mountains of western North CarolinaNew Alchemist John Todd gave the magazines editors about the serial killers 14th-generation Xerox copy of what can conservatively be described as a dynamite paper. We had only to glance at this extraordinary document to realize that the paper (originally written at the request of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) is one of the most conciseyet most sweepingexaminations yet made of the real problems of. the world.

Read it and see for yourself. Im also glad to see another person here who recognizes the strong connection between Odum and David Holmgrens articulation of effects of child sexual abuse Permaculture. Holmgren wrote the in boston first Permaculture book (Permaculture One), with Bill Mollison serving the role of sleepers editor and advisor. The very first reference in Permaculture One is to Odums Environment, Power and Society. And as Holger notices, Holmgrens Permaculture Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability is full of constant references to Odums work. Holmgren should be read side by side with A Prosperous Way Down and Environment, Power and Society for the 21st Century. In Boston? These works complement and reinforce one another so well. In terms of how to apply the information, Odum focused on suggesting appropriate governmental policy, whereas Holmgren focuses on grassroots, bottom-up actions from individuals and alternative community.

In fact, the other paper at the top of my list for energy literacy is Holmgrens Energy and Permaculture. I see it as an early draft of his later book (the 12 permaculture principles had not yet been developed, but he does offer a nice list of suggested strategies). It is almost entirely a tribute to Odum. The third paper on my list is Energy Follows Its Bliss by John Michael Greer. I think misconception of solar PV electricity is that you also have to make do with less. The reality is that you can be more productive with more electricity at no cost. Well, there is the one time first cost. Which when divided out over the useful life, net to around 3 cents per Malcolm kWH. Do you even know how much you pay? Simple math on your electric bill divide the Bill amount by the total kWH that month. I am an expert in these matters.

Here is the cost backup.